Compositional Liveness-Preservering Conformance Testing of Timed I/O Automata

Lars Luthmann, Hendrik Göttmann and Malte Lochau


I/O conformance testing theories (e.g., ioco) are concerned with formally defining when observable output behaviors of an implementation conform to those permitted by a specification. Thereupon, several real-time extensions of ioco, usually called tioco, have been proposed, further taking into account permitted delays between actions. In this paper, we propose an improved version of tioco, called live timed ioco (ltioco), tackling various weaknesses of existing definitions. Here, a reasonable adaptation of quiescence (i.e., observable absence of any outputs) to real-time behaviors has to be done with care: ltioco therefore distinguishes safe outputs being allowed to happen, from live outputs being enforced to happen within a certain time period thus inducing two different facets of quiescence. Furthermore, tioco is frequently defined on Timed I/O Labeled Transition Systems (TIOLTS), a semantic model of Timed I/O Automata (TIOA) which is infinitely branching and thus infeasible for practical testing tools. Instead, we extend the theory of zone graphs to enable ltioco testing on a finite semantic model of TIOA. Finally, we investigate compositionality of ltioco with respect to parallel composition including a proper treatment of silent transitions.

Technical Report

The technical report containing all proofs is available at

Using the Tool

The tool implementation for our approach together with example files is available here. For instructions on how to use the tool, please have a look at the manual. Note, that the tool is written in Java and requires OpenJDK 12 (or compatible).